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L’insicurezza idrica del mondo arabo

BERLINO – Non vi è luogo del pianeta con più penuria d’acqua dolce del mondo arabo. La regione ospita gran parte dei paesi e territori più poveri di risorse idriche al mondo, tra questi il Bahrain, Gibuti, Gaza, la Giordania, il Kuwait, la Libia, il Qatar, l'Arabia Saudita e gli Emirati Arabi Uniti. Tale carenza, aggravata dalla rapida crescita delle popolazioni, dall’impoverimento e degrado degli ecosistemi naturali e dal malcontento popolare, sta gettando un'ombra sul futuro di questi paesi.   

D’altro canto, le sfide che deve affrontare il mondo arabo sono tutt'altro che scarse. Poiché molti stati arabi non sono altro che dei costrutti moderni inventati da potenze coloniali sul punto di andarsene, e pertanto mancano di un'identità storica unitaria, spesso le loro strutture statali sono prive di fondamenta solide. Si aggiunga a ciò una combinazione di pressioni esterne e interne – comprese quelle derivanti da un’impennata dell'islamismo, dalle guerre civili e dalle migrazioni di massa dalle zone di conflitto – ed ecco che il futuro di molti di questi paesi appare incerto. 

Quello che pochi sembrano riconoscere è il ruolo della carenza d'acqua in questo circolo vizioso della violenza. Un elemento che ha contribuito a innescare le insurrezioni della cosiddetta Primavera araba, cioè l’aumento dei prezzi dei generi alimentari, era strettamente legato all’inasprimento della crisi idrica nella regione. L’acqua, inoltre, alimenta le tensioni tra stati. L’Arabia Saudita e la Giordania, ad esempio, sono impegnate in una tacita gara per lo sfruttamento della falda acquifera di Disi, condivisa da entrambi i paesi.       

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