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Darurat Air di Dunia Arab

BERLIN – Saat ini kelangkaan air tawar terburuk terjadi di dunia Arab. Mayoritas negara atau daerah termiskin di dunia dalam hal sumber daya air berada di Timur Tengah, termasuk Bahrain, Djibouti, Gaza, Yordania, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar, Arab Saudi, dan Uni Emirat Arab. Kelangkaan itu – diperburuk dengan ledakan penduduk, penipisan dan pengrusakan ekosistem alami, dan ketidakpuasan publik – menghambat masa depan negara-negara tersebut.

Namun bukan itu saja kesulitan yang dihadapi dunia Arab. Mengingat bahwa sebagian besar negara Arab bersifat modern constructs yang tercipta dari berhentinya kekuasaan kolonial, sehingga lemah atas identitas historis yang kohesif, maka struktur negara mereka kurang memiliki fondasi kuat. Belum lagi adanya tekanan-tekanan eksternal dan internal – termasuk dari meluasnya gerakan Islamisme, perang saudara, dan perpindahan penduduk secara massal dari wilayah konflik – tampak bahwa masa depan negara-negara Arab mengalami ketidakpastian,

Satu hal yang dikenali beberapa pihak ialah betapa kelangkaan air berdampak pada siklus kekerasan yang terjadi. Satu pemicu utama meletusnya Arab Spring – kenaikan harga pangan – berhubungan langsung dengan krisis air yang memburuk di Timur Tengah. Ketersediaan air juga memicu ketegangan antar negara. Arab Saudi dan Yordania, contohnya, memperebutkan akuifer al-Disi yang digunakan bersama oleh dua negara.

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