Anadolu Agency/ Getty Images

Die Wasserkrise der arabischen Welt

BERLIN – Nirgendwo ist Süßwasser knapper als in der arabischen Welt. In der Region sind die meisten der in puncto Wasservorkommen ärmsten Staaten oder Territorien der Welt angesiedelt, darunter Bahrain, Dschibuti, Gaza, Jordanien, Kuwait, Libyen, Katar, Saudi-Arabien und die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate. Dieser Wassermangel – verschärft durch explosionsartiges Bevölkerungswachstum, die Übernutzung und Zerstörung natürlicher Ökosysteme und Unzufriedenheit in der Bevölkerung – überschattet die Zukunft dieser Länder.

An Herausforderungen herrscht in der arabischen Welt kein Mangel. In Anbetracht der Tatsache, dass viele arabische Staaten moderne Gebilde sind, die von scheidenden Kolonialmächten erdacht wurden und denen es somit an zusammenhängenden historischen Identitäten mangelt, fehlt es ihren staatlichen Strukturen oftmals an soliden Grundlagen. Fügt man den innen- und außenpolitischen Belastungen hinzu – unter anderem durch das Erstarken des Islamismus, Bürgerkriege und Massenmigration aus Krisengebieten – scheint die Zukunft mehrerer arabischer Länder ungewiss.

Kaum jemand scheint zu erkennen, inwiefern Wasserknappheit zu diesem Kreislauf der Gewalt beiträgt. Ein entscheidender Auslöser des Arabischen Frühlings – steigende Lebensmittelpreise – stand in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang mit der sich verschärfenden Wasserkrise in der Region. Zudem verstärkt Wasser die Spannungen zwischen den Ländern. So liefern sich etwa Saudi-Arabien und Jordanien einen stillen Wettlauf um die Wasserentnahme aus dem Disi-Aquifer, einem unterirdischen Wasserreservoir in ihrem gemeinsamen Grenzgebiet.

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