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阿拉伯世界的水危机

柏林—阿拉伯地区是世界上水资源最稀缺的地方。该地区也是世界上大部分水资源最贫乏国家或领地所在地,包括巴林、吉布提、加沙、约旦、科威特、利比亚、卡塔尔、沙特阿拉伯和阿联酋。水短缺因为人口爆炸、自然生态系统的枯竭和退化以及民怨而越发加剧,给这些国家的未来蒙上了一层阴影。

阿拉伯地区面临着诸多挑战。许多阿拉伯国家是分割殖民势力的产物,因此不存在有凝聚力的历史身份,国家结构也常常缺少根基。除此之外还面临着内忧外患——包括伊斯兰主义兴起、内战和人口大规模逃离冲突区——一些阿拉伯国家的未来面临不确定性。

很少有人注意到的是水稀缺在这一暴力循环中所起的作用。阿拉伯之春起义的一个关键触发因素是食品价格上涨,这直接与该地区水危机恶化有关。水也助长了国家间的紧张。比如,沙特阿拉伯和约旦正在进行一场从两国共享的al-Disi含水层取水的沉默的竞赛。

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