Urban planning model in Dubai

Ein neues Jahrhundert für den Nahen Osten

NEW YORK – Immer wieder fragen sich die Vereinigten Staaten, die Europäische Union und westliche Institutionen wie die Weltbank, warum sich der Nahe Osten nicht selbst regieren kann. Die Frage ist ehrlich gestellt, lässt aber nicht gerade auf viel Selbsterkenntnis schließen. Immerhin war das mit Abstand größte Hindernis für gute Regierungen in der Region der Mangel an Selbst-Regierung: Durch wiederholte US-amerikanische und europäische Interventionen, die bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg und mancherorts noch früher zurückreichen, wurden die politischen Institutionen dort verkrüppelt.

Hundert Jahre sind genug. Das Jahr 2016 sollte den Beginn eines neuen Jahrhunderts selbstbestimmter Nahostpolitik einläuten, die sich dringend auf die Herausforderungen der Nachhaltigen Entwicklung konzentrieren muss.

Das Schicksal des Nahen Ostens der letzten hundert Jahre wurde im November 1914 besiegelt, als sich das Osmanische Reich im Ersten Weltkrieg auf der Verliererseite wiederfand. Dies führte zu seiner Auflösung, und die Siegermächte Großbritannien und Frankreich übernahmen die hegemonische Kontrolle über seine Bruchstücke. Großbritannien, das bereits seit 1882 über Ägypten herrscht, hatte seitdem auch über den Irak, Jordanien, Israel und Palästina das Sagen, während Frankreich zusätzlich zu seinen Kolonien in Nordafrika auch noch die Kontrolle über den Libanon und Syrien übernahm.

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