Urban planning model in Dubai

Un nouveau siècle pour le Moyen-Orient

NEW YORK – Bien souvent, les États-Unis, l’Union européenne et les institutions à gouvernance occidentale telles que la Banque mondiale s’interrogent sur la question de savoir pourquoi le Moyen-Orient ne parvient pas à se gouverner seul. Bien que ces acteurs soulèvent cette question avec sincérité, ils le font avec un manque certain d’introspection. Car après tout, le plus important obstacle à une bonne gouvernance dans la région réside précisément dans un manque d’auto-gouvernance : les institutions politiques de la région se trouvent en effet diminuées en conséquence d’interventions américaines et européennes répétées, qui remontent à la Première Guerre mondiale, et pour certaines zones avant même cela.

Cette situation centenaire a assez duré. Il est temps que l’année 2016 marque le début d’un nouveau siècle de politiques moyen-orientales élaborées par la région elle-même, axées de manière urgente sur les différents défis du développement durable.

Le sort qu’a connu le Moyen-Orient au cours des 100 dernières années se trouve scellé en novembre 1914, lorsque l’Empire ottoman choisit le camp des vaincus de la Première Guerre mondiale. À l’issue de cette défaite, l’empire est démantelé, les puissances victorieuses que sont l’Angleterre et la France installant un contrôle hégémonique sur ses vestiges. Déjà au contrôle de l’Égypte depuis 1882, la Grande-Bretagne va en effet prendre le contrôle du gouvernement des actuels Irak, Jordanie, Israël, Palestine et Arabie saoudite, tandis que la France, alors au contrôle d’une majeure partie de l’Afrique du Nord, va installer son emprise sur le Liban et la Syrie.

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