Khalil Mazraawi/AFP/Getty Images

Le Moyen-Orient doit prendre en main le problème des réfugiés

FÈS – Depuis 2012, plus de 12 millions de migrants et de réfugiés ont débarqué en Europe ou rejoint des pays du Moyen-Orient ou d’Afrique du Nord. Il en est résulté une crise politique et humanitaire qui est allée en s’aggravant – et un débat de plus en plus tendu sur les moyens d’y faire face.

En Europe, ce débat exacerbe les désaccords et les divisions, comme on a pu le constater au Royaume-Uni lors de la récente consultation qui a vu une majorité se prononcer pour une sortie de l’Union européenne – une issue largement déterminée par les craintes exagérées que suscite l’immigration. Dès lors que les États membres ne sont pas parvenus à se mettre d’accord sur la sécurisation des frontières extérieures de l’UE, et encore moins sur ce qu’ils doivent faire des réfugiés qui les ont déjà franchies, une réponse commune et efficace s’avère hors de portée.

Au Moyen-Orient, le débat concernant les réfugiés est bien moins bruyant, mais il est tout autant passionné. La Jordanie, qui compte 6,5 millions d’habitants, accueille aujourd’hui plus de l,4 million de réfugiés, syriens pour la plupart. Le million et demi de réfugiés syriens au Liban représente presque un tiers des 4,7 millions qui constituent la population du pays. La Turquie et ses 75 millions d’habitants hébergent aujourd’hui  2,7 millions de réfugiés syriens, dont quelque 30% vivent dans 22 camps administrés par le gouvernement, non loin de la frontière syrienne.

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