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中东如何摆脱中等收入陷阱

华盛顿——对于发展中国家而言,实现中等收入状态既是眷顾也是诅咒。尽管已经战胜了极端贫困和短缺,但现实却往往伴随着增长放缓,而从历史上看,这样的放缓已经导致鲜有国家成功迈向高收入水平。对于中东和北非(MENA)地区的大部分中等收入国家而言,现实情况的确如此。但究竟有没有办法能够解决这一问题?

过去50年来,中东和北非国家一直未能摆脱经济放缓甚至增长停滞。尽管上述经济体中有不少,尤其是那些依赖碳氢化合物出口的经济体曾经经历过强劲的增长,但持久的经济赶超却从未成为现实。

中东和北非国家普遍存在中等收入陷阱表明其经济增长存在普遍的结构性障碍。特别是由于缺乏采用最新技术的能力和意愿,私营部门缺乏活力是所有国家共同面临的问题。这长期阻碍持续的生产力增长,而没有生产力增长,就不可能提高整体的生活水平。

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