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Gérer les compromis au Moyen-Orient

LE CAIRE – Le Moyen-Orient et le monde arabe en particulier connaissent une période de changement fondamental et des défis encore plus fondamentaux. Mais la capacité de la région à relever les nombreux défis auxquels elle est confrontée se complique par des désaccords nationaux, régionaux et internationaux à propos de la forme que ce changement doit prendre, aussi bien dans l'ensemble de la région que dans les sociétés individuelles.

La communauté internationale a sans aucun doute un rôle central à jouer pour soutenir les réformes sociales et économiques dans la région et pour aider les gouvernements à trouver la volonté et la manière d'entreprendre les changements nécessaires. Mais il est bien plus important que les Arabes eux-mêmes adoptent une perspective tournée vers l'avenir en reconnaissant les défis auxquels ils sont confrontés, pour prendre en charge leur propre destin.

Ceci est apparu de façon tout à fait claire avec les révoltes du Printemps arabe en 2011. Bien que la région ait déjà été transformée par des changements démographiques, notamment par une croissance démographique rapide, par l'urbanisation et par une brusque augmentation du nombre de jeunes adultes sans emploi chez ceux ayant bénéficié d'une formation universitaire, l'éruption de protestations a pris par surprise de nombreux pays du Moyen-Orient et d'Afrique du Nord. Les jeunesses arabes ont été une force importante en faveur des exigences de changement. Les nouvelles technologies numériques ont également libéré les sources d'information et ont facilité la communication entre citoyens ordinaires, essentiellement en démantelant les monopoles que de nombreux gouvernements détenaient sur la connaissance et la connectivité.

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