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Микрофинансирование климатической устойчивости

ЛОНДОН – Уязвимые группы населения становятся главными жертвами последствий изменения климата, таких как повышение уровня моря, необычные погодные явления, длительные и суровые засухи, наводнения. По мнению Всемирного банка, если не предпринять эффективные контрмеры, к 2030 году из-за изменения климата более 100 миллионов человек могут оказаться за чертой бедности.

Для того чтобы помочь наиболее уязвимым регионам стать более устойчивыми к последствия изменения климата, финансовые учреждения должны оказывать поддержку малым и средним предприятиям (МСП). В развивающихся странах на долю МСП приходится 45% рабочих мест и до 33% ВВП. Эти цифры будут намного выше, если учесть малый и средний бизнес в неформальном секторе. Если МСП самостоятельно займутся повышением своей климатической устойчивости, эти действия окажут лавинообразный позитивный эффект на окружающий их мир.

К сожалению, владельцы МСП обычно испытывают трудности при получении банковских кредитов. Им приходится обращаться к неформальному кредитованию и альтернативным источникам финансирования для ведения бизнеса. По данным Всемирного банка, 50% МСП в формальном секторе не имеют доступа к формальным видам кредитования; в целом в мире общий размер кредитного дефицита у малых и средних предприятий (как в формальном секторе, так и в неформальном) достигает $2,6 трлн. В разных регионах мира размер этого дефицита варьируется, но он особенно велик в странах Африки и Азии.

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