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Pembiayaan Mikro untuk Ketahanan Perubahan Iklim

LONDON – Sejumlah kelompok sangat rentan akan menyaksikan kejamnya dampak perubahan iklim, mulai dari kenaikan permukaan air laut, peristiwa cuaca ekstrem, hingga kemarau berkepanjangan dan banjir parah. Menurut Bank Dunia, tanpa upaya-upaya mitigasi yang efektif, perubahan iklim akan menjerumuskan lebih dari 100 juta orang ke jurang kemiskinan pada tahun 2030.

Agar masyarakat paling rentan sanggup berdaya tahan dari akibat buruk perubahan iklim, lembaga-lembaga keuangan harus mendukung usaha-usaha kecil dan menengah (UKM). Di negara-negara emerging economies, UKM berkontribusi terhadap 45% pekerjaan dan 33% PDB – angka tersebut akan meroket ketika UKM informal juga dimasukkan. Ketika UKM mampu membangun ketahanan terhadap perubahan iklim, efek berganda (cascading effect) akan tercipta bagi komunitas di sekitarnya.

Sayangnya, pemilik UKM umumnya kesulitan mendapat pinjaman bank, sehingga condong mengandalkan pinjaman informal dan sumber pendanaan alternatif lain untuk menyokong bisnisnya. Menurut Bank Dunia, 50% UKM formal mengalami keterbatasan akses pada kredit formal, dan total kesenjangan kredit di kalangan UKM formal dan informal mencapai 2,6 triliun dolar AS di seluruh dunia. Meskipun derajatnya berbeda-beda, Afrika dan Asia menghadapi kesenjangan terbesar.

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