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Microfinancement des capacités d’adaptation aux changements climatiques

LONDRES – Ce sont les collectivités vulnérables qui souffrent le plus des changements climatiques — de la hausse du niveau de la mer et des événements météorologiques extrêmes aux graves sécheresses de longue durée et aux inondations. Selon la Banque mondiale, sans mesures concrètes d’atténuation, les changements climatiques pourraient faire sombrer plus de 100 millions de personnes dans un état de pauvreté d’ici 2030.

Pour venir en aide aux collectivités vulnérables afin qu’elles puissent s’adapter aux répercussions des changements climatiques, il faut que les institutions financières viennent soutenir les petites et moyennes entreprises. Dans les économies émergentes, les PME comptent pour autant que 45 % des emplois et jusqu’à 33 % du PIB — et ces chiffres sont considérablement plus élevés lorsqu’on y inclut les PME non officielles. Lorsqu’une PME renforce sa propre adaptabilité aux changements climatiques, ceci peut avoir des effets en cascade dans la collectivité environnante.

C’est un fait déplorable que les propriétaires de PME ont généralement des difficultés à obtenir des prêts bancaires et qu’ils doivent se tourner vers d’autres sources de financement non officielles pour soutenir le développement de leur entreprise. Selon la Banque mondiale, 50 % des PME du secteur officiel n’ont pas accès à des sources officielles de crédit et le manque global de financement des PME, qu’elles fassent partie du secteur officiel ou non, serait aussi élevé que 2 600 milliards de $ pour le monde entier. Ce déficit de financement dépend beaucoup des régions, mais les besoins sont particulièrement criants en Afrique et en Asie.

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