Theophilos Papadopoulos/Flickr

La sustitución digital de la mano de obra

MILÁN – Una vez más, las tecnologías digitales están transformando las cadenas globales de suministro y, con ellas, la estructura de la economía global. ¿Qué necesitan saber al respecto las empresas, los ciudadanos y los gobiernos, que luchan por seguir el ritmo de los cambios?

El primer efecto de la digitalización en las cadenas de suministro fue un aumento de la eficiencia y una reducción drástica de los tiempos de espera de los pedidos. Siendo el capital más móvil que la mano de obra, la actividad económica (producción, investigación, diseño, etc.) se trasladó a cualquier país o región accesible que contara con mano de obra y capital humano relativamente baratos. Con apenas un ligero retardo, la complejidad se volvió manejable, y el modelo de suministro lineal (donde algo que se produce en el país A se consume en el país B) dio paso a un modelo más complejo con redes de suministro más fragmentadas pero más eficientes.

Entretanto, con el crecimiento de las economías emergentes y su transformación en países de ingresos medios, se produjo un cambio drástico del lado de la demanda. Los productores de los países en desarrollo, que antes constituían una fracción relativamente pequeña de la demanda global, se convirtieron en grandes consumidores.

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