Theophilos Papadopoulos/Flickr

Sostituzione Digitale del Lavoro

MILANO – Le tecnologie digitali stanno ancora una volta trasformando le catene globali del valore e, con esse, la struttura dell’economia globale. Cosa devono sapere le imprese, i cittadini e i politici che si sforzano di tenere il passo?

Le catene di fornitura digitali, all’inizio, hanno incrementato l’efficienza e ridotto drasticamente i tempi di consegna. Il capitale era mobile; il lavoro meno. L’attività economica (produzione, ricerca, progettazione, ecc.) si è trasferita in tutti i paesi o regioni accessibili che presentavano lavoro e capitale umano relativamente poco costosi. Anche se con un lieve ritardo, la complessità è diventata gestibile, e il modello lineare delle catene di approvvigionamento globali (qualcosa prodotto nel paese A è consumato nel paese B) ha lasciato il posto a un modello più complesso con reti di approvvigionamento più frammentate, ma più efficienti.

Nel frattempo, un cambiamento radicale è avvenuto dal lato della domanda, poiché le economie emergenti sono cresciute e sono diventate paesi a reddito medio. I produttori dei paesi in via di sviluppo, che nella fase precedente rappresentavano una parte relativamente piccola della domanda globale, sono diventati i principali consumatori.

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