Theophilos Papadopoulos/Flickr

Le déplacement numérique du travail

MILAN – Les technologies numériques sont de nouveau en train de transformer les chaînes de valeur mondiales et, avec elles, la structure de l'économie mondiale dans son ensemble. Quelles sont les informations dont les entreprises, les citoyens et les décideurs ont besoin pour parvenir à tenir le rythme ?

Les nouvelles chaînes d'approvisionnement issues des technologies numériques ont commencé par augmenter l'efficacité et par raccourcir considérablement les délais. Le capital est mobile ; le travail l’est moins. L’activité économique (la production, la recherche, la conception etc.) s’est déplacée vers tout pays ou toute région accessible qui disposait de main-d'œuvre et de capital humain relativement bon marché. Peu de temps après, la complexité est devenue gérable et le modèle linéaire des chaînes d'approvisionnement mondiales (ce qui est produit dans le pays A est consommé dans le pays B) a laissé la place à un modèle plus complexe, composé de réseaux d'approvisionnement plus fragmentés mais plus efficaces.

En même temps, un changement radical s'est produit du côté de la demande, avec la croissance des économies émergentes qui sont devenues des pays à revenu intermédiaire. Les producteurs des pays en développement, qui auparavant représentaient une fraction relativement faible de la demande mondiale, sont devenus de grands consommateurs.

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