Theophilos Papadopoulos/Flickr

العمالة والإحلال الرقمي

ميلانو ــ لقد عادت التكنولوجيا الرقمية مرة أخرى إلى تحويل سلاسل القيمة العالمية، ومعها تغير بنية الاقتصاد العالمي. ولكن ماذا ينبغي للشركات والمواطنين وصناع السياسات أن يعرفوا وهم يتدافعون في محاولة مواكبة التطورات؟

لقد نجحت سلاسل العرض الممكنة رقمياً في مستهل الأمر في زيادة الكفاءة وتقصير المسافات الزمنية إلى حد كبير. فكان رأس المال متنقلا؛ ولكن العمالة كانت أقل قدرة على التنقل. وبات بوسع النشاط الاقتصادي (الإنتاج والبحث والتصميم، إلى آخر ذلك) أن ينتقل إلى أي دولة أو منطقة يمكن الوصول إليها حيث العمالة الرخيصة ورأس المال البشري الرخيص نسبيا. ومع تأخير طفيف، أصبح من الممكن التعامل مع التعقيدات، وأفسح النموذج الخطي لسلاسل العرض العالمية (حيث يستهلك البند المنتج في الدولة أ في الدولة ب) المجال لنموذج أكثر تعقيداً يتألف من شبكات عرض أكثر تفتتاً ولكنها أكثر كفاءة.

وفي الوقت نفسه، حدث تحول جذري على جانب الطلب، مع نمو الاقتصادات الناشئة وتحولها إلى بلدان متوسطة الدخل. فقد تحول المنتجون في البلدان النامية، الذين كانوا يمثلون في حقبة سابقة جزءاً ضئيلاً نسبياً من الطلب العالمي، إلى مستهلكين رئيسيين.

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