Politische Strategie als „Straftat“

STANFORD – Als die Berliner Mauer im November vor 25 Jahren fiel, verkündeten die Experten, allen voran Francis Fukuyama, das Ende der Geschichte – den Triumph des demokratischen Kapitalismus über alle anderen konkurrierenden Systeme.  Amerikas wirtschaftlicher Erfolg und der Zusammenbruch des Kommunismus nährten dieses Narrativ. Die als Kalter Krieg bekannte, lange andauernde politische, intellektuelle und zuweilen militärische Konfrontation war vorbei.

Tatsächlich erklärte der damalige polnische Präsident und Chef der kommunistischen Partei, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, mir und meinen Kabinettskollegen bei einer Konferenz in Warschau im Winter 1990, dass „uns die Kräfte der Geschichte zwangsläufig zum Kapitalismus führten“. Es gelang ihm zwar nicht, sich aus der Hegelschen Dialektik zu befreien, doch räumte er zu diesem Zeitpunkt ein, dass der Kommunismus den Endpunkt der Geschichte völlig verkannt hätte.

Ein paar Jahrzehnte später haben verschiedene Formen des Kapitalismus in manchen ehemaligen kommunistischen und sozialistischen Ländern durchaus Wunder bewirkt. Polen ist ein hervorragendes Beispiel eines gelungenen wirtschaftlichen und politischen Übergangs.

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