Il ne faut pas criminaliser la critique politique

STANFORD – Il y aura 25 ans en novembre le mur de Berlin est tombé. A ce moment-là les grands experts avec au tout premier rang Francis Fukuyama ont annoncé la fin de l'Histoire : le triomphe du capitalisme démocratique sur tous les autres systèmes. Le succès économique de l'Amérique et l'effondrement du communisme ont alimenté ce point de vue. La longue confrontation politique, intellectuelle et parfois militaire de la Guerre froide était terminée.

Lorsque les membres de mon cabinet et moi-même l'avons rencontré à Varsovie au cours de l'hiver 1990, le général Jaruzelski qui était alors président de la Pologne et chef du parti communiste nous a déclaré que "les forces de l'Histoire nous ont conduit irrémédiablement au capitalisme". Il restait prisonnier de la dialectique hégélienne, mais admettait finalement que l'idée de l'avènement du communisme était complètement erronée.

Deux décennies plus tard, diverses formes de capitalisme ont fait des merveilles dans quelques anciens pays communistes ou socialistes. La Pologne est le parfait exemple d'une transition économique et politique réussie.

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