La sólidas reformas energéticas de México

CIUDAD DE MÉXICO – México está perfilándose para llegar a ser la estrella económica de Latinoamérica en el próximo decenio. La reciente reforma del sector energético por parte del Gobierno contribuirá directamente a los resultados económicos reduciendo el costo de la manufactura. En el marco del Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLC), el aumento consiguiente en la competitividad de la manufactura presagia un impulso importante del crecimiento de México.

Hasta que el Gobierno aprobó la necesaria modificación constitucional y promulgó la legislación correspondiente, el sector energético de México era enteramente de propiedad estatal. El componente más importante de dicho sector, Pemex, era la propietaria de todas las reservas de petróleo y gas de México y la encargada exclusiva de la exploración, la producción y la distribución al por menor. También la producción y distribución de electricidad estaba enteramente en manos del Gobierno.

Como los conocimientos técnicos de Pemex eran limitados, no podían desarrollar y explotar enteramente los enormes recursos de petróleo y gas de México. Hay unas importantes reservas de petróleo que requieren la tecnología para la perforación en aguas profundas, de la que esa empresa carece. Además, hay pozos antiguos que han dejado de producir, pero se podría volverlos productivos de nuevo con las tecnologías modernas, y hay yacimientos de gas y petróleo que sólo se pueden explotar con las nuevas tecnologías de fracturación hidráulica y perforación horizontal.

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