Mexico city street food Robin Cerutti/Getty Images

Paradoks Perekonomian Meksiko

CAMBRIDGE – Selain Meksiko, hanya ada sedikit negara yang perekonomiannya terlihat seperti sebuah paradoks. Setelah mengalami sejumlah krisis makroekonomi pada tahun 1990an, Meksiko melakukan reformasi besar-besaran yang seharusnya menempatkan mereka pada jalur yang tepat untuk mencapai pertumbuhan ekonomi yang pesat. Meksiko menerapkan prinsip ekonomi yang hati-hati, menandatangani Perjanjian Perdagangan Bebas Amerika Utara (NAFTA), melakukan investasi pada bidang pendidikan, dan menerapkan kebijakan inovatif untuk menuntaskan kemiskinan.

Reformasi ini telah menghasilkan banyak manfaat. Tercapainya kestabilan makroekonomi, investasi domestik meningkat sebesar dua angka persentase terhadap PDB, dan rata-rata tingkat pendidikan meningkat sebesar tiga tahun. Namun manfaat reformasi terlihat paling jelas dalam bidang eksternal. Nilai ekspor meningkat dari 5% menjadi 30% dari PDB, dan jumlah penanaman modal asing ke dalam negeri terhadap PDB meningkat sebesar tiga kali lipat.

Namun dampak reformasi perekonomian terhadap hal-hal yang penting – yaitu produktivitas dan pertumbuhan ekonomi secara keseluruhan – mengecewakan. Sejak tahun 1996, pertumbuhan ekonomi per kapita rata-rata berada dibawah 1.5% dan produktivitas faktor total stagnan atau mengalami penurunan.

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