Mexico city street food Robin Cerutti/Getty Images

墨西哥悖论

坎布里奇—很少有经济体表现出像墨西哥这么大的悖论。在经历了20世纪90年代的一系列宏观经济危机后,墨西哥采取了果断的改革,理应让它走上高速增长之路。它采取了审慎宏观经济管理、经济政策自由化、签署北美自由贸易协定(NAFTA)、投资于教育,并实施创新政策消灭贫困。

从很多角度看,这些改革收到了成效。宏观经济实现了稳定,国内投资占GDP之比增加了两个百分点,平均受教育年限增加了近三年。也许最显著的收益在对外部门。出口从占GDP的5%大涨至30%,外国直接对墨投资占GDP之比增长了两倍。

但关键的指标——总体生产率和经济增长——却令人非常失望。1996年以来,人均经济增长平均水平大大低于1.5%,全要素生产率停滞不前甚至有所下降。

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