La política exterior alemana maduró

BERLÍN – La reunificación alemana, de la que pronto se cumplirán 25 años, volvió a poner en el centro de Europa una gran potencia cuya ubicación, su capacidad económica y también su historia despertaron temores a un renacer de ambiciones hegemónicas. Los principales líderes europeos de la época (entre ellos Giulio Andreotti, Margaret Thatcher y François Mitterrand) temían que Alemania quisiera rever el resultado de las dos guerras mundiales.

En los círculos políticos alemanes de 1990, la sola idea hubiera parecido monstruosa y absurda. Pero el fin de la partición alemana también supuso el fin del orden mundial bipolar de la Guerra Fría; y ahora que el mundo se enfrenta a una peligrosa acumulación de tensiones y crisis regionales (en Ucrania, Medio Oriente y Extremo Oriente), es demasiado evidente la falta de un orden nuevo.

Hasta ahora, los temores a un regreso de los fantasmas de la historia han sido infundados, al menos por cuanto atañe a Alemania. A pesar de que la crisis financiera global y sus efectos en Europa convirtieron a Alemania en hegemón económico de facto, no es un papel que el gobierno haya buscado o disfrute. La Alemania reunificada sigue siendo una democracia pacífica, reconoce las fronteras con todos sus vecinos y se mantiene firme en sus vínculos con la OTAN y la Unión Europea.

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