Une politique étrangère allemande adulte

BERLIN – Il y a bientôt 25 ans, la réunification de l'Allemagne a une fois de plus mis au cœur de l'Europe une grande puissance dont la place, le potentiel économique et l'histoire, ont soulevé à nouveau des soupçons sur ses ambitions hégémoniques. Les principaux leaders européens d'alors (en particulier Giulio Andreotti, Margaret Thatcher, et François Mitterrand) s'inquiétaient de ce que l'Allemagne puisse vouloir réviser les résultats des deux guerres mondiales.

Dans les milieux politiques allemands en 1990, cette idée-là aurait paru absurde et monstrueuse. Mais la fin de la partition de l'Allemagne signifiait également la fin de l'ordre du monde bipolaire de la Guerre froide. Et au moment où le monde fait face à une accumulation de tensions et de dangereuses crises régionales (en Ukraine, au Moyen-Orient et en Asie), l'absence d'un nouvel ordre est devenue dangereusement manifeste.

Les inquiétudes sur le retour des fantômes de l'histoire ont été jusqu'à présent sans fondement, du moins en ce qui concerne l'Allemagne. Bien que la crise financière mondiale et ses effets sur l'Europe aient transformé de facto l'Allemagne en la principale puissance économique, ce rôle n'est ni recherché ni apprécié par le gouvernement. L'Allemagne réunifiée reste une démocratie pacifique qui reconnaît toutes les frontières voisines et reste fermement ancrée dans l'OTAN et dans l'Union européenne.

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