Angela Merkel Aleph/Wikimedia Commons

إحياء الزعيم العظيم

لندن ــ أكثر من مائتي عام انقضت منذ دارت رُحى معركة واترلو، عندما تسببت الهزيمة الكارثية التي مُني بها نابليون في إحداث شرخ كبير في الصورة الذاتية لبلاده حتى أن الجنرال شارل ديجول حذف هذه الواقعة ببساطة من تأريخه للجيش الفرنسي. ومع هذا فإن نابليون، مثله في ذلك كمثل ديجول، من السهل للغاية أن يحتل لنفسه مكاناً على أي قائمة تجمع الزعماء العظماء في التاريخ ــ على افتراض أننا نعتبر "العظمة" سِمة فردية بطبيعة الحال.

قد يقول ماركس وتولستوي إن "الزعيم العظيم" شيء لا وجود له. ففي نظر ماركس، كان الصراع الطبقي في فرنسا سبباً في خلق الظروف التي سمحت بتحول شخص "مضحك ومتوسط القدرة" ــ والمقصود نابليون ــ إلى بطل. أما تولستوي فهو يرى أن نابليون لم يكن جنرالاً بارعاً بشكل بارز، وكانت شجاعة والتزام الجنود الفرنسيين الأفراد الذين فازوا في معركة بورودينو هي التي حملته إلى النصر.

ولكن سواء كان نابليون عظيماً أو لم يكن، فإن السؤال يظل هو ما إذا كان أي زعيم قد يستحق ذلك الوصف. وإذا كان الأمر كذلك، فمن؟

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