再论重商主义

丹尼·罗德瑞克

剑桥——当一位商人走进政府部长的办公室并表示他需要得到帮助时,部长该作何反应?是请他坐下喝杯咖啡,问问政府如何才能帮得上忙?还是根据政府不应向商界施以恩惠的原则,将他赶出门外?

这一问题正是对决策者和经济学家们的一次罗沙哈测验。自由市场的狂热追随者与新古典经济学家是其中一派的代表,他们坚信国家与商业之间界限分明。在这一派看来,政府的职责在于确立明晰的规则与规制措施,之后便应对商业自身的沉浮听之任之。公职官员应该与私人利益保持一定距离,绝不应献媚于后者。起主宰作用的应当是消费者,而非生产者。

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