攻克精神疾病

达沃斯——精神疾病既非新问题,也非发达国家所独有,这不同于绝大多数人的看法。我们所谓的精神分裂症及躁郁症最早的记录文献可以追溯到古希腊时期,英国学者罗伯特·伯顿1621年发表的 《忧郁症的解剖》依然是对抑郁症最准确的描述之一。今天,精神疾病所导致的致死和自杀病例有75%集中在中低收入国家 。

一个令人鼓舞的新现象是人们正在给予这个问题以高度的重视。去年的达沃斯会议上,我本人参与推出了一项新全球议程理事会心理健康计划,因为世界经济论坛和哈佛大学公共卫生学院预测精神疾病未来二十年耗费的全球经济成本将超过癌症、糖尿病和呼吸系统疾病的总和。因为事关重大,领导人显然有充分的人文和经济理由重视心理健康问题。

决策者采取行动时,最好不要忘记精神障碍是一种脑功能紊乱。太多人不承认精神疾病是严肃、往往也是致命的内科疾病,而是把精神疾病视为性格问题或缺乏意志力而不加理会。和其他任何器官一样,大脑也是一种身体器官。脑功能紊乱不应比胰腺、肝脏或心脏问题受到更多责怪。脑部疾病患者应该得到与其他任何身体疾病患者完全相同的医疗水平和服务。

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