riyadh skyline David Degner/Getty Images

Une économie durable pour le monde arabe

WASHINGTON, DC – Au cours des dernières décennies, des millions de personnes dans le monde arabe sont sorties de la grande pauvreté. Mais le cercle vicieux des difficultés économiques et de la violence fait aujourd’hui courir le risque d’un ralentissement du progrès, voire d’un retour en arrière. Pour éviter d’en arriver là, les pays arabes doivent promptement s’engager dans la construction d’une économie plus durable, soutenue par un secteur privé revigoré à la créativité renforcée, par une amélioration des services publics et par la création de biens communs régionaux et globaux.

La première chose à faire, si l’on veut y parvenir, est de s’accorder sur le degré et la nature des obstacles potentiels. Les pays arabes sont aujourd’hui confrontés à un ralentissement général de la croissance du PIB et au durcissement des restrictions budgétaires. Les disparités d’accès à l’éducation, à la formation et aux soins de santé – qui traduisent en partie ces restrictions budgétaires – exacerbent des inégalités qui se sont déjà creusées.

Comme on a pu le constater dans la région, cette situation nourrit la polarisation politique et les affrontements violents, avec les déplacements de populations, les pertes en vies humaines, les destructions d’infrastructures et les coûts économiques exorbitants qui s’ensuivent. Si le développement économique ne garantit pas la paix, son absence contribue bien souvent à l’extrémisme et à la violence, car à la colère populaire s’ajoute alors une perte de légitimité des institutions. L’existence de conflits voisins, avec leurs effets déstabilisants de débordement, renforce le risque de troubles.

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