Sombras y luces de la economía

ANKARA – Si es cierto que vivimos en una “aldea global”, relacionados entre sí por vínculos comerciales, financieros y sociales, entonces también es cierto que la actividad económica informal en un lugar del mundo tiene un impacto negativo en otros lugares. Esto significa que formalizar las economías debería de considerarse como un bien público mundial. El G-20 y otras entidades internacionales deberían tomar la iniciativa y asegurar la coordinación y cooperación necesarias para lograr este objetivo.

Los grandes perdedores de la economía informal son los ciudadanos ordinarios, porque la informalidad inhibe el crecimiento económico de largo plazo y aumento de la productividad; crea una competencia injusta, obstaculiza el crecimiento de pequeñas y medianas empresas (las principales fuentes de empleo); y deja a millones de trabajadores sin derechos básicos, como seguro de salud y pensiones. De igual manera, conduce a pérdidas importantes en los ingresos fiscales, reduce la calidad y cantidad de servicios públicos. La desigualdad en el ingreso y la injusticia social aumentan también invariablemente.

Reducir el alcance de la economía formal bien puede parecer una tarea nacional; y los gobiernos realmente deberían actuar. Deberían disminuir la carga fiscal, simplificar los sistemas fiscales y reducir los costos de cumplimiento de normas, y al mismo tiempo fortalecer el cumplimiento. Del mismo modo, deberían eliminar los obstáculos a la competencia, simplificar los procesos de registro comercial, aumentar la transparencia de contrataciones públicas y mejorar el acceso al crédito.

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