Ténèbres et lumières de l'économie

ANKARA – S'il est vrai que nous vivons dans un « village planétaire » et que nous sommes reliés les uns aux autres par des relations commerciales, financières et sociales, il est alors également vrai que l'activité économique informelle dans une partie du monde a des conséquences négatives ailleurs. Cela signifie qu'il faut considérer la tâche d'officialiser chaque économie comme un bien public mondial. Le G-20 et d'autres entités internationales doivent prendre l'initiative d'assurer la coordination et la coopération nécessaire à cette tâche.

Les plus grands perdants de l'économie informelle sont des citoyens ordinaires, parce que son caractère informel inhibe la croissance économique à long terme et les bénéfices de la productivité. Cela crée une concurrence déloyale, empêche la croissance des petites et moyennes entreprises (les principales sources d'emploi) et prive des millions de travailleurs de leurs droits fondamentaux, comme l'assurance maladie et la retraite. Elle cause aussi d'importantes pertes en recettes fiscales, ce qui diminue la qualité et la quantité des services publics. L'inégalité des revenus et l'injustice sociale augmentent aussi invariablement.

Réduire la portée de l'économie informelle semble relever du rôle de l'Etat : et en effet, les gouvernements doivent agir. Ils doivent réduire la charge fiscale, simplifier les systèmes fiscaux et réduire les coûts de conformité à la réglementation, tout en renforçant l'application de la loi. De même, ils doivent supprimer les obstacles à la concurrence, simplifier les procédures d'enregistrement au registre du commerce, augmenter la transparence des marchés publics et améliorer l'accès au crédit.

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