经济的影和光

安卡拉—如果我们真的生活在“地球村”中,通过商业、金融和社会联系彼此,那么某地非正式经济活动就真的会对其他地方产生消极影响。这意味着将所有经济都正式化应该被视为全球公共品。G-20和其他国际实体应该在确保这一公共品所需要的协调和协作中起到领导作用。

非正式经济的最大输家是普通人民,因为非正式性破坏了长期经济增长和生产率进步、创造了不公平竞争、阻碍了中小企业(就业的主要源泉)成长,并导致数百万工人无法获得医保和退休金等基本权利。非正式性还导致巨大的税收收入损失,降低公共服务的数量和质量。收入不平等和社会不公也会增加。

减少正式经济的空间或许是国家的责任;而政府也确实应该行动起来。它们应该减少税收负担、简化税制,并降低合规成本、加强规则实施。类似地,它们应该消除竞争壁垒、简化企业注册程序、增加公共采购的透明度、改善信用供给。

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