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数字时代的媒体捕获

纽约—过去几年,新闻自由形势不利。波兰、匈牙利和土耳其政府越来越极权,和巴尔干国家、中国和俄罗斯的领导人一样,它们越来越热衷于控制公共话题。美国也是如此,特朗普总统不断地试图抹黑新闻媒体,其政府对媒体的态度前所未有地不友好。

对报纸进行赤裸裸的编造的时代——比如我在越南和缅甸所看到的——已经基本结束了。但是,最近的发展趋势表明,新闻自由仍然非常脆弱,因为政府和——用政治学家艾琳娜·蒙吉欧-皮皮迪(Alina Mungiu-Pippidi)的说——“与政治沆瀣一气的既得利益”一起进行着可称之为“媒体捕获”(media capture)的软控制。

2008年金融危机后,经济学家用“捕获”一词来形容监管者——他们常常来自(或回到)他们的所谓监督对象——如何无法对金融业进行合理的监督。媒体捕获在很大程度上也是如此,政治领导人要么完全拥有媒体(如意大利的贝卢斯科尼),要么能够通过裙带关系或惩罚来保证媒体领导人忠于自己。

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