Junior Kannah/AFP/Getty Images

تنمية مستدامة بديهية

بودابست ــ تضم أهداف التنمية المستدامة التي أقرتها الأمم المتحدة لعام 2030 توفير التعليم الابتدائي لكل الأطفال، وفرص العمل لكل البالغين، وإنهاء الجوع والفقر. وهي طموحات نبيلة ــ ولكنها باهظة التكلفة. فهل نتمكن حقا من تحمل تكاليف تحقيقها جميعا؟

تشير تقديرات منظمة التعاون الاقتصادي والتنمية إلى أن تلبية كل أهداف التنمية المستدامة العامة السبعة عشر، والتي تشمل 169 هدفا فرعيا محددا للتنمية، قد تكلف نحو 3.3 إلى 4.5 تريليون دولار أميركي سنويا ــ وهو ما يعادل تقريبا الميزانية الفيدرالية للولايات المتحدة لعام 2016، وأكبر كثيرا من نحو 132 مليار دولار أُنفِقَت في مجال مساعدات التنمية الخارجية على مستوى العالَم العام الماضي.

الواقع أن مجرد توفير التعليم الابتدائي للجميع يتطلب ما لا يقل عن 17 مليار دولار من الإنفاق الإضافي سنويا، وتشير تقديرات اللجنة الحكومية التابعة للجمعية العامة للأمم المتحدة إلى أن استئصال الفقر يتطلب استثمارات سنوية في البنية الأساسية بقيمة 5 إلى 7 تريليون دولار على مستوى العالم. والواقع أن التقديرات تتفاوت كثيرا لأن لا أحد يستطيع أن يجزم عن يقين كم قد يتكلف تحقيق أهداف التنمية المستدامة.

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