通往利他主义之路

尼泊尔雪谦寺——哈佛大学生物学家马丁·诺瓦克写道,“合作是进化过程中创造力的源泉,从细胞、多细胞生物、蚁丘、村庄到城市莫不如此。”人类在力求迎接全球新挑战的同时,必须找到新的合作方式。利他主义必须是合作的基础。

愿意无私向他人伸出援手不仅是一种崇高的理想。无私也提升了我们及子孙后代的生活品质和意义;事实上,无私或许甚至是生存的必要条件。我们必须敏锐地意识到这一点,并且大胆地告诉世界。

人类面临着三项重要挑战:确保所有人拥有体面的生活条件、提高生活满意度和保护我们的地球。传统的成本效益分析很难把上述要求统一到一起,因为它们分属于不同的时间框架。我们担心每年的经济状况;我们关注自己终生的幸福,而我们对环境的忧虑则主要为子孙后代造福。

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