Pedro Molina

От Сан-Франциско до Южно-Китайского моря

ОСАКА – Территориальные и морские споры между Китаем, Тайванем и несколькими странами Юго-Восточной Азии охватили регион Южно-Китайского моря, и особых перспектив их разрешения в ближайшее время нет. Но нынешнее шаткое положение вещей может быть разумным до тех пор, пока вовлеченные стороны будут принимать серьезные меры по укреплению доверия в рамках многосторонних обсуждений, сохранив эффективную политику сдерживания в отношении Китая и соблюдая обязательство не применять наступательные силы.

Естественно, Китай стремится исключить вмешательство внерегиональных великих держав, в частности США, предпочитая вести двусторонние переговоры с более слабыми региональными предъявителями притязаний, над которыми он сможет более легко доминировать. Однако внерегиональные державы ссылаются на Конвенцию ООН по морскому праву, в частности на свободу судоходства и право мирного плавания, для оправдания своего участия.

Учитывая, что споры в Южно-Китайском море касаются перекрывающихся притязаний на «исключительные экономические зоны», а не на открытый океан, данная конвенция ООН не совсем здесь уместна. Но другое международное соглашение все же содержит некоторые рекомендации для урегулирования таких споров – Сан-Францисский мирный договор, вступивший в силу в 1952 году и официально положивший конец второй мировой войне в Азиатско-Тихоокеанском регионе.

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