Las opciones del mundo árabe

AMMAN – Cuando inició el despertar del mundo árabe en 2011, su objetivo principal debió haber sido el fortalecimiento del pluralismo y la democracia –causas que se ignoraron en el primer despertar anticolonial del mundo árabe del siglo XX. Sin embargo, después de tres años de lucha, el proceso apenas ha comenzado. ¿Alcanzará el segundo despertar árabe finalmente sus metas?

La respuesta depende de cuál de los tres modelos usen los países árabes para guiar su transición: un modelo de altura de miras, incluyente que busque crear consenso; un modelo de gana todo, que excluye a grandes partes de la población; o un enfoque orientado a no pararse ante nada con el mero interés de preservar el régimen. Estos modelos reflejan las grandes diferencias entre las circunstancias actuales de los países árabes y perspectivas del futuro.

El mejor ejemplo del modelo inclusivo es Túnez, donde los ex opositores han formado un gobierno de coalición sin interferencia militar. Claro, el proceso no fue fácil. Sin embargo, después de una lucha tensa, los tunecinos se dieron cuenta de que la cooperación era la única opción para avanzar.

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