Redéfinir les paramètres de la mondialisation

DUBAÏ – Comme beaucoup l’ont fait remarquer, la mondialisation bat en retraite. Malgré tous ses avantages indéniables, elle a engendré des problèmes majeurs de régie et de gestion qui ont révélé les carences des États nationaux et des institutions internationales.

Elle a laissé les gens de toutes les régions, les riches comme les pauvres, se débrouiller avec les difficultés – de la faillite des États à celle des banques, de la surpêche au chômage, des changements climatiques à la stagnation économique – auxquelles la mondialisation a contribué sans pouvoir vraiment y remédier. Des institutions fragiles ont donné lieu à des réactions politiques et à de très grands risques sur plusieurs fronts.

Mark Leonard, directeur du Conseil européen des relations internationales et vice-président du nouveau Conseil du programme mondial sur la géoéconomie du Forum économique mondial a fait remarquer que l’interdépendance, auparavant une manne économique, fait désormais partie des menaces. « Personne ne se porte volontaire pour renoncer aux avantages de l’économie mondiale », écrivait-il récemment, « mais toutes les grandes puissances étudient les moyens de se protéger des risques que la mondialisation présente, de nature militaire ou autre ». En fait, « Après 25 ans de resserrement des liens entre les économies, les pays semblent vouloir revenir à un cloisonnement plus étanche des frontières ».

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