Salvar a la jubilación

CAMBRIDGE – Los programas públicos de pensiones en todo el mundo están en problemas financieros. Debido a los continuos aumentos en la esperanza de vida, la cantidad de personas que pueden acceder a los beneficios de la jubilación aumenta más rápidamente que los ingresos fiscales disponibles para financiarlos.

En Estados Unidos, la Oficina Presupuestaria del Congreso proyecta que el costo relativo de los beneficios de pensiones por edad del programa de la Seguridad Social aumentará más de un cuarto durante los próximos 25 años, del 4,9 % del PBI al 6,2 % en 2038. Debido a que los impuestos destinados a la Seguridad Social no aumentan automáticamente más rápido que el PBI, o bien la tasa de crecimiento de los beneficios debe caer o hay que aumentar los impuestos.

Una de las causas del rápido aumento de los beneficios se deriva de cómo se ajustan por inflación. Según la ley estadounidense actual, los beneficios de los jubilados se ajustan automáticamente para compensar los aumentos en el índice de precios al consumidor (IPC) tradicional. Pero los expertos saben desde hace mucho que el IPC sobreestima el verdadero aumento del costo de vida y que se debe corregir la sobreindexación de los beneficios que eso genera.

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