Leon Neal/ Getty Images

La Brexplosión antiglobalización

SEÚL – El populismo, el nacionalismo y la xenofobia contribuyeron a la victoria de la campaña "Leave" (partir) en el reciente referendo del Reino Unido sobre la pertenencia a la Unión Europea. Pero esas fuerzas flotan en la superficie de un cambio radical más trascendente: un giro fundamental a nivel mundial en la relación entre el estado y el mercado. 

Desde el nacimiento del capitalismo moderno, esos dos marcos de actividad humana generalmente estuvieron enfrentados. Mientras que el mercado tiende a expandirse geográficamente en tanto sus participantes persiguen beneficios económicos, el estado busca mantener en orden a todos y a todo dentro del territorio que controla. Un comerciante puede reconocer oportunidades de mercado en un país extranjero, pero, si pretende aprovecharlas, se topará con el estado -más inmediatamente, con las autoridades inmigratorias del país.

De qué manera reconciliar la tensión entre el mercado y el estado es la preocupación central de la economía política hoy, del mismo modo que lo fue para Adam Smith en el siglo XVIII, para Friedrich List y Karl Marx en el siglo XIX y para John Maynard Keynes y Friedrich von Hayek en su extenso debate sobre el tema a mediados del siglo XX.

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