Рыночные решения, окружающая среда и Марокко

За последнее десятилетие значительно увеличилось количество экспериментов с использованием рыночных механизмов, например таких, как экотуризм или продажа квот на сокращение заводских выбросов. В Африке такие подходы зачастую нацелены на получение обоюдно выигрышных результатов: принести пользу бедным и сохранить природные ресурсы. Но результирующий эффект этих программ понимается с трудом.

Теория, лежащая в основе рыночных стратегий защиты проста: создавай рынки для производных продуктов, чтобы увеличить ценность, которую местные жители придают природному ресурсу, таким образом побуждая их сохранять его. Придерживаясь такой логики, несколько групп, занимавшихся поиском возможностей защиты уникальных марроканских лесов аргании колючей (железного дерева), с энтузиазмом занялись коммерциализацией масла плодов аргании. Результаты этой деятельности должны заставить другие африканские страны настороженно относиться к потенциалу рыночных подходов решения стоящих перед ними проблем с охраной окружающей среды/проблем развития.

Железное дерево является уникальным, экологически важным компонентом экосистемы засушливого юго-запада Марокко. На протяжении 20-го столетия почти половина лесов аргании исчезла, поскольку был большой спрос на высококачественный древесный уголь из них и из-за перевода земель, где они росли, под сельскохозяйственное производство. Осознавая постоянную угрозу для существования лесов аргании, ЮНЕСКО в 1999 году занесла эти леса во всемирную сеть биосферных заповедников.

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