Poverty Youth Unemployment Saad Sarfraz Sheikh

التفاوت في الدخل والبطالة بين الشباب

كمبريدج ــ مع تصدر كتاب توماس بيكيتي المثير للجدال "رأس المال في القرن الحادي والعشرين" العديد من قوائم أفضل المبيعات، يعود التفاوت في الدخول ــ والذي كان في ارتفاع منذ سبعينيات القرن العشرين ــ ليأسر انتباه العالم مرة أخرى. والواقع أن الجدال الدائر حول هذا الموضوع غطى العديد من انعكاسات هذا الاتجاه، بما في ذلك تفكك التماسك الاجتماعي، وتزايد الأحياء الفقيرة، واستغلال الأيدي العاملة، وإصابة الطبقة المتوسطة بالضعف. ولكن ثمة تأثير واحد حظي بقدر ضئيل نسبياً من الاهتمام: البطالة بين الشباب والبطالة الجزئية.

منذ اندلاع الأزمة الاقتصادية العالمية، ارتفعت معدلات البطالة بين الشباب إلى عنان السماء في مختلف أنحاء العالم. ففي العالم المتقدم، يعاني 18% من السكان بين سن 16 عاماً و24 عاماً من البطالة. في حين يظل معدل البطالة بين الشباب في ألمانيا منخفضاً نسبياً عند مستوى 9%. وترتفع النسبة إلى 16% في الولايات المتحدة، و20% في المملكة المتحدة، وما يتجاوز 50% في أسبانيا واليونان. وفي الشرق الأوسط وشمال أفريقيا أيضاً ترتفع معدلات البطالة بين الشباب إلى نحو 28% و24% على التوالي. وعلى النقيض من هذا تبلغ نسبة البطالة بين الشباب في شرق آسيا 10% وفي جنوب آسيا 9% فقط.

ولكن صناع السياسات لم يفعلوا إلا القليل نسبياً لمعالجة هذه المشكلة. والعالم يجازف الآن بخلق ما أطلقت عليه منظمة العمل الدولية مسمى "الجيل الضائع"، حيث من المتوقع أن تصل معدلات البطالة العالمية بين الشباب 13% بحلول عام 2018.

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