La China de Mao, 60 años después

LONDRES – Todo país está formado por su historia, pero los países inventan y reescriben sus historias también. La historia de cómo llegamos a ser como somos tiene que adaptarse a nuestro sentido tribal de solidaridad y nuestros logros. Exageramos nuestros triunfos y virtudes, ponemos a los villanos afuera, disimulamos nuestras falencias. Todo esto hace que el estudio de la historia sea potencialmente revolucionario, y enormemente valioso. Los buenos historiadores nos incitan a ser honestos acerca de nosotros mismos y destruyen nuestros autoengaños.

Esto es particularmente cierto en lo relativo a nuestros héroes de varios rostros, como vemos en el tratamiento del Partido Comunista chino a Mao Zedong. En octubre se cumplen 60 años del momento en que Mao se plantó en Tiananmen, Puerta de la Paz Celestial en Beijing, y declaró la fundación de la República Popular. Ese momento marcó el comienzo de años de guerras y terribles privaciones; la revolución se había ganado con sangre, sacrificio, heroísmo, los errores de los enemigos y la ayuda manipuladora de Stalin, que se presentó como un amigo. Atrás quedaron las décadas de avaros señores de la guerra, codiciosos imperialistas e invasores japoneses, aunque había por delante todavía mucha miseria que sufrir, a medida que se iba arraigando la tiranía de Mao.

Los juicios acerca de Mao difieren grandemente. Para los comunistas de línea dura, fue un triple héroe: histórico, patriótico y de la clase trabajadora mundial. Para el valiente carismático disidente Wei Jingsheng, Mao “sumió prácticamente a China entera en un estado de violencia, duplicidad y pobreza.”

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