Šedesátiny Maovy Číny

LONDÝN – Každou zemi formují její dějiny, ale země si své dějiny také vymýšlejí a přepisují je. Příběh o tom, jak jsme se stali tím, čím jsme, musí uspokojovat náš pocit kmenové pospolitosti a úspěchu. Svá vítězství a ctnosti zveličujeme, své ničemy máme za cizáky a selhání tutláme. To vše proměňuje studium historie v potenciálně vzbouřeneckou činnost, leč nesmírně cennou. Dobří historici nás pobízejí k poctivosti vůči sobě samým. Rozbíjejí naše sebeklamy.

To platí obzvlášť pro naše poskvrněné hrdiny, jak dnes máme možnost vidět na přístupu Komunistické strany Číny k Mao Ce-tungovi. Je tomu šedesát let, co Mao v říjnu roku 1949 stanul na tribuně náměstí Tchien-an-men, pekingské Brány nebeského klidu, a vyhlásil ustavení lidové republiky. Onen okamžik oznamoval konec let války a strašlivého utrpení; revoluci dovedla k vítězství krev, oběti, hrdinství, chyby nepřátel a manipulativní pomoc Stalina, který se prohlašoval za přítele. Skončila desetiletí nenasytných válečných baronů, chamtivých imperialistů a japonských vetřelců; Čína se mohla postavit na nohy – ačkoliv mnoho trýzně zemi ještě čekalo, jak Maova tyranie zapouštěla kořeny.

Názory na Maa se nesmírně různí. Pro zapřisáhlé komunisty byl trojnásobným hrdinou – historicky, vlastenecky i světově. Odvážný a charismatický disident Wej Ťing-šeng zase soudí, že Mao „uvrhl prakticky celou Čínu do stavu násilí, pokrytectví a bídy“.

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