Beaucoup de lois pour peu de justice en Chine

L’image sur l’écran d’ordinateur est choquante : un homme est étendu sur un lit d’hôpital, la tête bandée, du sang dégoulinant du sommet de son crâne. L’homme, aujourd’hui assis à côté de moi, explique en maniant la litote : “évidement, je dois continuer d’avoir la foi dans le système juridique chinois, même si je dois admettre que cet incident a quelque peu modéré mon enthousiasme.”

L’ “incident” s’est produit en décembre dernier, alors que lui et un autre avocat voyageaient pour préparer le deuxième procès d’un activiste aveugle et autodidacte. Cet activiste avait été piégé par les autorités locales après avoir dénoncé des abus commis par les autorités locales du planning familial. Les deux avocats voyageaient en bus, lorsqu’une bande d’hommes, certains brandissant des tuyaux en métal, est brusquement montée à bord et les a attaqués.

Ses blessures étaient sans gravité, mais l’incident incarne les paradoxes du système juridique chinois : au cours des vingt dernières années, la Chine a voté des centaines de lois et élevé la “gouvernance du pays dans le respect de la loi” à une position éminente tant idéologique que constitutionnelle. La conscience juridique de la société a atteint des sommets sans précédents. La semaine dernière, la Chine a fini par sanctifier la propriété privée en votant la loi tant attendue sur les droits à la propriété, dans ce que le gouvernement a appelé “un progrès significatif pour la promotion de la loi dans le pays.”

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