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全球南方的制造业未来

华盛顿—在新兴市场,制造业历史上一直是生产率、增长和就业的源泉。自20世纪50年代以来,工业化让拉丁美洲、亚洲和东欧的发展水平稳步提升。

但传统制造业作为适合低收入国家的增长战略,其效果正在消失。要在科技推动的未来全球经济竞争,发展中国家需要新模式提高生产率、让人们参与工作。

两大因素促使我们质疑制造业推动的发展。首先是竞争力:吸引生产流向低收入国家越来越难。劳动力成本、汇率和基础设施都竞争激烈,这导致全球制造业枢纽开始出现整合。

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