closed steel factory us Andrew Lichtenstein/Corbis/Getty Images

美国制造业职位究竟去哪了

发自伯克利——从1979年到1999年的二十年间,美国的制造业就业人数从1900万下降到1700万。但在随后的1999年至2009年,这个数字骤降至1200万。这种更为戏剧性的下跌催生了这样的观点:美国经济在世纪之交突然停止工作了——至少对男性蓝领来说。

但如果以此判断1999年以前制造业就一切正常也是不对的。其实许多制造业职位早在前几十年前就被消灭了。只不过某个区域和部门中消失的职位一般都会被其他区域或部门的新工作所替代罢了——即使不是以占总劳动力的份额来计算,也是在绝对数量上如此。

以我祖父威廉·沃尔科特·劳德的职业生涯为例,他在20世纪初生于新英格兰,到了1933年,他在马萨诸塞州布罗克顿开办的劳德兄弟鞋业公司面临即将破产的局面,所以他把业务搬到了缅因州工资水平较低的南巴力斯地区。

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