Una corretta urbanizzazione

WASHINGTON, DC – Il mondo in via di sviluppo sta sperimentando una rapida urbanizzazione, con il numero di cittadini destinato a toccare i quattro miliardi nel 2030, raddoppiando il livello del 2000. Ma lo sviluppo urbano non pianificato e non coordinato è rischioso e minaccia di sostituire le speranze di una vita migliore dei migranti con condizioni di vita malsane, disoccupazione e un’elevata esposizione ai disastri naturali.

Per certi versi l’urbanizzazione è razionale. Dopo tutto, le città sono centri di prosperità, dove si concentra oltre l’80% dell’attività economica globale. E la loro densità facilita la fornitura di servizi pubblici, tra cui istruzione, sanità e servizi di base. In effetti, costa 0,70-0,80 dollari per metro cubo fornire acqua potabile alle aree urbane, rispetto ai 2 dollari necessari per le aree scarsamente popolate.

Ma l’elevata concentrazione di attività e persone, soprattutto nelle aree costiere, è una responsabilità di tipo economico, con circa 3mila miliardi di dollari di attività a rischio per i pericoli naturali. La vulnerabilità aumenterà ulteriormente nei prossimi due decenni, dal momento che le città triplicheranno i terreni edificabili, fino a 600.000 kilometri quadrati, spesso senza le infrastrutture o le politiche di base per evitare di costruire in aree vulnerabili e a rischio idrogeologico.

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