Dát městům správný směr

WASHINGTON, DC – Rozvojový svět zažívá překotnou urbanizaci; počet obyvatel měst má v roce 2030 dosáhnout čtyř miliard – dvojnásobku oproti roku 2000. Neplánovaný a nekoordinovaný urbánní rozvoj je však rizikový a hrozí, že naděje migrantů na lepší život vystřídají nehygienické podmínky k životu, nezaměstnanost a vysoká exponovanost vůči přírodním katastrofám.

V mnoha ohledech je urbanizace rozumná. Města jsou uzly prosperity, kde se koncentruje přes 80 % celosvětové ekonomické aktivity. Hustota jejich osídlení usnadňuje distribuci veřejných služeb, včetně vzdělávání, zdravotní péče a základních služeb. Vždyť rozvod vody vodovodním potrubím v urbánních oblastech vyjde na 0,70-0,80 dolaru na kubický metr, zatímco v řídce osídlených oblastech jde o dva dolary.

Vysoká koncentrace majetku a osob, zejména v pobřežních oblastech, je ale ekonomickou přítěží, jelikož majetek v hodnotě kolem tří bilionů dolarů ohrožují rizika přírodních pohrom. V příštích dvaceti letech se rizikovost ještě zvýší, neboť zastavěná plocha měst se ztrojnásobí, na 600 tisíc čtverečních kilometrů, často bez základní infrastruktury či postupů k zamezení výstavby a osidlování zranitelných oblastí, náchylných ke katastrofám.

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