让城市走上正轨

华盛顿——发展中国家正经历快速城市化, 2030年城市居民数将达40亿,在2000年基础上实现翻番。但缺乏规划协调的城市发展危险很大,有可能打碎新移民对未来生活的美好憧憬,而代之以生活条件脏乱、失业、易受自然灾害影响。

城市化在诸多方面自有其合理性。毕竟,城市是全球80%以上经济活动的聚集地,也是繁荣的枢纽。集中人口密度有利于提供教育、医疗和基础服务等公共服务。事实上,市区供应自来水的成本仅为每立方米0.70-0.80美元,比人烟稀少地区的2美元能节约不少开销。

但尤其沿海地区资产及人员的高度集中却成为一种经济负担,约3万亿资产都受到自然灾害的威胁。如果城市今后二十年建设用地增加三倍(至60万平方公里)漏洞也必将进一步增加,因为往往缺乏基本的基础设施或政策防止在灾害频发的危险地带建设并定居。

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