People swimming in Ganges Daniel Berehulak | getty images

Управление политикой использования водных ресурсов

АММАН – Всемирный день воды, отмечаемый 22 марта этого года, дает возможность выдвинуть на первый план обсуждение проблемы, которая во многих странах стала суровой реальностью: доступность пресной воды, которая все больше становится определяющим стратегическим фактором в региональных и глобальных отношениях. Если водными ресурсами не управлять с чрезвычайной осторожностью, последствия могут быть разрушительными.

В прошлом году во «Всемирном отчете о развитии водоснабжения» Организации Объединенных Наций еще раз было подчеркнуто, что растущий разрыв между спросом и предложением водных ресурсов может стать причиной конфликта. Всемирный экономический форум позиционировал водные кризисы как самую тревожную глобальную угрозу, более опасную, чем террористические атаки или обвалы финансовых рынков. Возникновение водных кризисов более вероятно, чем использование оружия массового поражения. И исследование Группы стратегического предвидения показало важность разумной политики использования водных ресурсов: крайне маловероятно, чтобы страны, совместно управляющие водными ресурсами, начали между собой военные действия.

Ближний Восток является трагическим примером того, что может произойти, если отсутствует региональное сотрудничество. Ирак, Сирия и Турция боролись за каждый кубометр воды из рек Тигра и Евфрата. В результате проиграли все. Негосударственные органы управляют важнейшими частями бассейнов этих двух рек. И нехватка воды усугубила кризис беженцев из этих областей (это ‑ апофеоз бездарного государственного управления).

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