People swimming in Ganges Daniel Berehulak | getty images

水资源管理的政治

安曼——今年3月22日的世界水日有机会凸显出许多国家所面临的严峻现实:淡水供应已日益成为地区和全球事务中一种决定性的战略因素。除非对水资源实行极度审慎的管理,否则造成的后果可能具有灾难性。

去年,联合国世界水资源开发报告再次强调了供给和需求间日趋增大的矛盾可能如何引发争端。世界经济论坛已将水资源危机列为最令人担忧的全球威胁,比大规模杀伤性武器的使用更有可能发生,而且比恐怖袭击或金融崩溃更加危险。战略前瞻组织的研究已经表明了实施智慧管理的重要性:联合进行水资源管理的国家间极其不可能发生战争。

缺乏地区合作的悲惨实例莫过于中东。伊拉克、叙利亚和土耳其奋力争夺底格里斯河和幼发拉底河每一立方米的水源。结果是所有各方均遭受了损失。非国家组织控制着两河流域的重要部分。水资源短缺已导致该地区难民危机进一步恶化(其实这场危机本身就是管理不善的典范)。

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